Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Menidae
Etymology: Mene: Greek, mene, meneos = strength (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 50 - 200 m (Ref. 47690). Subtropical; 32°N - 30°S, 31°E - 169°E
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, as far south as Durban in South Africa, to southern Japan and northeastern Australia, east to New Caledonia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47690); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47690)
Inhabits deeper coastal waters near the bottom on both the continental shelves and around major island groups; sometimes in river estuaries (Ref. 47690, 48635). Found in schools (Ref. 47690, 48635). Feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 5213). Readily dries in air without salting (Ref. 4375, 48635). Marketed fresh and dried (Ref. 47690). Minimum depth from Ref. 30573.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1984. Menidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 3. (Ref. 3465)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.8 - 27.6, mean 24.4 (based on 503 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02089 (0.01396 - 0.03128), b=3.04 (2.93 - 3.15), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.19-1.2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .