Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Pomacanthidae
Etymology: Holacanthus: Greek, holos = full + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 2 - 92 m (Ref. 9710), usually 5 - 25 m (Ref. 9761). Subtropical; 35°N - 18°N, 100°W - 64°W (Ref. 55264)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4858); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3797)
Soft parts of dorsal and anal fins and caudal fins have wide yellow margins. Dark spot on forehead lacks electric blue ring. Juveniles blue, banded, with last prominent band straight (Ref. 26938). The pectorals are blue basally, clear distally, with a broad yellow band separating the two colors; the pelvic fins are light yellow (Ref. 13442).
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Bahamas and off southern Florida, USA to the Gulf of Mexico, including Yucatan, Mexico (Ref. 26938).
Inhabits rocky or coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Juveniles in channels and on inshore reefs (Ref. 9710). Feeds primarily on sponges (Ref. 9710). Small juveniles do well in aquariums once they begin to accept food.
Allen, G.R., 1985. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03310 (0.01917 - 0.05715), b=2.89 (2.73 - 3.05), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.25 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .