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Sander lucioperca  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pike-perch
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Sander lucioperca
Picture by Zienert, S.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Percidae (Perches) > Luciopercinae

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; pelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 2 - 30 m (Ref. 30578), usually 2 - 3 m (Ref. 27368).   Temperate; 6°C - 22°C (Ref. 2059); 67°N - 36°N, 1°W - 75°E

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 36.7, range 28 - 46 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); max. published weight: 20.0 kg (Ref. 40476); max. reported age: 17 years (Ref. 59043)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 13 - 20; Dorsal soft rays (total): 18-24; Anal spines: 2-3; Anal soft rays: 10 - 14; Vertebrae: 45 - 47. Distinguished from congeners in Europe by the following combination of characters: 1-2 enlarged canine teeth in anterior part of each jaw; second dorsal fin with 18-22½ branched rays; and 80-97 scales on lateral line (Ref. 59043).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

Europe: Caspian, Baltic, Black and Aral Sea basins; Elbe (North Sea basin) and Maritza (Aegean basin) drainages. North to about 65° N in Finland. Introduced widely (Ref. 59043). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit large, turbid rivers and eutrophic lakes, brackish coastal lakes and estuaries. Feed mainly on gregarious, pelagic fishes. They attain first sexual maturity at 3-10 years of age, usually at 4. Undertake short spawning migrations. Individuals foraging in brackish water move to freshwater habitats. Migrations up to 250 km have been recorded. Homing is well developed, even nearby populations may be relatively isolated. Spawn in pairs at dawn or night. Spawning occurs in April-May, exceptional from late February until July, depending on latitude and altitude when temperatures reach 10-14° C on spawning grounds (Ref. 59043). Popularly fished by sport fishers. Its flesh is succulent (Ref. 30578). Utilized fresh or frozen and eaten steamed, broiled and microwaved (Ref. 9988). An individual weighing 19 kg was reportedly caught in 1959 in Starnberger, Bavaria, Germany (Peter Admicka, pers. Comm. E-mail: peter.adamicka@oeaw.ac.at). The Lake Hjälmaren Pikeperch Fish-Trap fishery of this species has been certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (http://www.msc.org/) as well-managed and sustainable (http://www.msc.org/html/content_1280.htm).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Potential pest (Ref. 57271)




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(Aquaculture: production, species profile; fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00613 - 0.00896), b=3.11 (3.05 - 3.17), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.10-0.13; tm=3-5; tmax=16; Fec > 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (62 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.