Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; anadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 7251). Temperate; 52°N - 29°N, 79°W - 57°W
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 49.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 13.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 2.2 kg (Ref. 7251); max. reported age: 16 years (Ref. 72462)
North America: St. Lawrence-Lake Ontario drainage in Quebec, Canada south to Peedee River in South Carolina, USA.
Occurs in fresh, brackish and coastal waters (Ref. 7251). Primarily found in brackish water but common in pools and other quiet water areas of medium to large rivers, usually over mud. Neither anterolateral glandular groove nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5781 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00298 - 0.03508), b=3.04 (2.77 - 3.31), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.07-0.13; tmax=7(?)).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .