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Malacanthus plumieri  (Bloch, 1786)

Sand tilefish
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Malacanthus plumieri   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Malacanthus plumieri (Sand tilefish)
Malacanthus plumieri
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Malacanthidae (Tilefishes) > Malacanthinae
Etymology: Malacanthus: Greek, mala = a lot + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 153 m (Ref. 9626), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 9626).   Subtropical; 34°N - 8°S

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8991); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3644); max. published weight: 1.0 kg (Ref. 40637)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 4 - 5; Dorsal soft rays (total): 53-57; Anal spines: 1; Anal soft rays: 50 - 52. Caudal fin lunate.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina (USA), Gulf of Mexico, and throughout the Caribbean to Rio de la Plata, Uruguay. Southeast Atlantic: Ascension Island.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Primarily a shallow-water benthic species found on sand and rubble bottoms (Ref. 5246). Builds mounds of rubble and shell fragments near reefs and grass beds; enters its mound head first when frightened (Ref. 5246). Feeds mainly on stomatopods, fishes, polychaete worms, chitons, sea urchins, sea stars, amphipods and shrimps (Ref. 3644). Tends to bite when handled (Ref. 5246). Marketed fresh (Ref. 5246). Between 1995 and 2000, at least 7 specimens have been traded as aquarium fish at Ceará, Brazil (Ref. 49392).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Dooley, James | Collaborators

Dooley, J.K., 1978. Systematics and biology of the tilefishes (Perciformes: Branchiostegidae and Malacanthidae) with descriptions of two new species. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. No. 411:1-78. (Ref. 8991)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 5246)




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00472 - 0.02924), b=2.94 (2.71 - 3.17), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
very high
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.