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Sander vitreus  (Mitchill, 1818)

Walleye
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Sander vitreus
Picture by Scarola, J.F.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Percidae (Perches) > Luciopercinae
Etymology: vitreus: vitrea meaning glassy, alluding to the nature of the large, silvery eyes (Ref. 1998).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 27 m (Ref. 11002).   Temperate; ? - 29°C (Ref. 12741); 55°N - 35°N

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 36 - ? cm
Max length : 107 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1998); common length : 54.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 11.3 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 29 years (Ref. 12193)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 13 - 17; Dorsal soft rays (total): 18-22; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 11 - 14; Vertebrae: 44 - 48. Nuptial tubercles absent. Differentiation of sexes difficult. Branchiostegal rays 7,7 or 7,8 (Ref. 1998).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

North America: St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Arctic, and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to Northwest Territories in Canada, south to Alabama and Arkansas in the USA. Widely introduced elsewhere in the USA, including Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific drainages. Rarely found in brackish waters of North America (Ref. 1998).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in lakes, pools, backwaters, and runs of medium to large rivers. Prefers large, shallow lakes with high turbidity (Ref. 9988, 10294). Feeds at night, mainly on insects and fishes (prefers yellow perch and freshwater drum but will take any fish available) but feeds on crayfish, snails, frogs, mudpuppies, and small mammals when fish and insects are scarce (Ref. 1998). Although not widely farmed commercially for consumption, large numbers are hatched and raised for stocking lakes for game fishing (Ref. 9988). Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten pan-fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Spawning occurs in small groups (a larger female and two smaller males or two females and up to six males) that engage in chasing, circular swimming, and fin erection. The group then ascends to shallow water, females roll on their side, and eggs and sperm are released. Deposition of eggs usually occurs in a single night (Ref. 1998). Larvae pelagic (Ref. 7471).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Pub. (20):183 p. (Ref. 3814)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00440 - 0.00863), b=3.16 (3.06 - 3.26), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.05-0.45; tm=2-4; tmax=29; Fec=41,061).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.