Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Percidae
(Perches) > Luciopercinae
Etymology: vitreus: vitrea meaning glassy, alluding to the nature of the large, silvery eyes (Ref. 1998).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 27 m (Ref. 11002). Temperate; ? - 29°C (Ref. 12741); 55°N - 35°N
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 36 - ? cm
Max length : 107 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1998); common length : 54.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 11.3 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 29 years (Ref. 12193)
North America: St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Arctic, and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to Northwest Territories in Canada, south to Alabama and Arkansas in the USA. Widely introduced elsewhere in the USA, including Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific drainages. Rarely found in brackish waters of North America (Ref. 1998).
Occurs in lakes, pools, backwaters, and runs of medium to large rivers. Prefers large, shallow lakes with high turbidity (Ref. 9988, 10294). Feeds at night, mainly on insects and fishes (prefers yellow perch and freshwater drum but will take any fish available) but feeds on crayfish, snails, frogs, mudpuppies, and small mammals when fish and insects are scarce (Ref. 1998). Although not widely farmed commercially for consumption, large numbers are hatched and raised for stocking lakes for game fishing (Ref. 9988). Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten pan-fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Spawning occurs in small groups (a larger female and two smaller males or two females and up to six males) that engage in chasing, circular swimming, and fin erection. The group then ascends to shallow water, females roll on their side, and eggs and sperm are released. Deposition of eggs usually occurs in a single night (Ref. 1998). Larvae pelagic (Ref. 7471).
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Pub. (20):183 p. (Ref. 3814)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00440 - 0.00863), b=3.16 (3.06 - 3.26), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.05-0.45; tm=2-4; tmax=29; Fec=41,061).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .