Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Etheostoma: Greek, etheo = to strain + Greek, stoma = mouth; Rafinesque said "various mouths", but Jordan and Evermann suggest the name might have been intended as "Heterostoma (Ref. 45335); swaini: Named after an active ichthyologist in the late 1800s, J. S. Swain (Ref. 10294).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Subtropical; 36°N - 29°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 5.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
North America: Gulf drainages from Ochlockonee River in Georgia and Florida to Mississippi River in Louisiana, and north on Former Mississippi Embayment (east of Mississippi River only) to Kentucky in the USA; in Bear Creek in northwestern Alabama and northeastern Mississippi, USA.
Occurs in shallow rocky riffles, current-swept vegetation in headwaters, creeks and small to medium rivers (Ref. 5723); also found in streams (Ref. 10294). Feeds on midge larvae, with isopods and immature blackflies, mayflies, hydroptilid and hydropsychid caddisflies, and dragonflies (Ref. 10294).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .