Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Etheostoma: Greek, etheo = to strain + Greek, stoma = mouth; Rafinesque said "various mouths", but Jordan and Evermann suggest the name might have been intended as "Heterostoma (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Temperate; 4°C - 18°C (Ref. 2059); 46°N - 34°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 5.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 12193)
North America: Atlantic, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins from southern Quebec in Canada to Minnesota, and south to South Carolina (in Santee River system) in northern Alabama, and northeastern Oklahoma in the USA.
Inhabit rocky riffles of creeks and small to medium rivers (Ref. 5723, 10294); also found in small to medium upland streams (Ref. 10294). Adults feed on midge, blackfly, and caddisfly larvae, mayfly nymphs, isopods, and amphipods (Ref. 10294). Eggs are found clustered on underside of stone and guarded by males (Ref. 7043).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.39 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.81; tmax=4; Fec=10-121).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .