Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Mugiliformes
(Mullets) > Mugilidae
Etymology: Joturus: Taken from the Greek letter "iota" = the least or in the very small quantity + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Poey.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m. Subtropical; 22°C - 25°C (Ref. 36880), preferred 27°C (Ref. 107945); 30°N - 7°N, 112°W - 65°W
Central America: Bahamas and Greater Antilles (perhaps also the Lesser Antilles), and the Atlantic and Pacific slopes of Central America and Colombia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9321); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9321); max. published weight: 3.3 kg (Ref. 40637)
Adults inhabit the upper reaches of rivers but enter brackish waters where spawning probably occurs. An important food fish in some areas. Herbivorous and scrapes algae from stones on the bottom with its fleshy lips, although sometimes eats prawns (Ref. 36880). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Migrate from the upper reaches of rivers during months of high rainfall to the sea-river transition zone to spawn (Ref. 13802).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harrison, I.J., 1995. Mugilidae. Lisas. p. 1293-1298. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9321)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (55 of 100) .