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Typhlichthys subterraneus  Girard, 1859

Southern cavefish
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Typhlichthys subterraneus
Picture by Niemiller, M.L.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Percopsiformes (Trout-perches, pirate perches and cavef) > Amblyopsidae (Cavefishes)
Etymology: Typhlichthys: Greek, typhlops = blind + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335);  subterraneus: subterraneus meaning beneath the earth (Ref. 10294).   More on author: Girard.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; demersal.   Temperate; 39°N - 34°N

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

North America: portions of Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, Missouri and Arkansas, U.S.A.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10294); common length : 5.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 10294)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-10; Anal soft rays: 7 - 10; Vertebrae: 28 - 29. Pink-white. No eyes (vestigial eye tissues under skin). Large, broad head. Caudal fin with 0-2 rows of papillae (Ref. 5723) and a vertical basal row (Ref. 10294); 10-15 branched caudal rays (Ref. 5723).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit subterranean water (Ref. 5723). Found in caves which are near the water table and are therefore more uniform than other amblyopsid caves (Ref. 34868). Feed mainly on copepods, amphipods and isopods (Ref. 10294). Eggs are carried in gill chambers of females (Ref. 205).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Incubates eggs in gill chamber of females (Ref. 205). Fecundity is very low, perhaps fewer that 50 ova per female (Ref. 10294).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
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Pictures
Stamps, Coins
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Special reports

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Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0088   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.43; tm=2; tmax=4).
Prior r = 0.77, 2 SD range = 0.39 - 1.52, log(r) = -0.26, SD log(r) = 0.34, Based on: 1 M, 1 K, 1 tgen, 1 tmax, 1 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .