Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Hyporhamphus: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, rhamphos = beak, bill (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; amphidromous; depth range 30 - ? m (Ref. 10943). Temperate, preferred 27°C (Ref. 107945); 34°N - 17°S
Northwest Pacific: Yellow Sea, Pohai Sea, Japan Sea, and the Pacific coast of Japan, extending north to Sakhalin and to Preobrazheniye Bight and Vladivostok in the Gulf of Peter the Great. Recorded from the lower part of the Yangtze River in China. Occurrence of this species south to the Ryukyu Islands and Taiwan needs verification.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 17 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 637)
soft rays: 15 - 18;
Vertebrae: 59 - 63. Anterior branch of its preorbital canal curved forward at an angle of about 90°. Predorsal scales 66-81; vertebrae 59-63; pectoral fin rays 12-14, usually 13. Lower jaw shorter than head length.
Common in inshore waters. Occurs in the lower part of the Yangtze River in China (Ref. 10943). Forms small schools and feed mainly on zooplankton. Meat delicious. Also caught with dip nets. Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B. and J. Su, 1986. The halfbeaks (Pisces, Beloniformes, Hemiramphidae) of the Far East. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 138(1):250-301. (Ref. 10943)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00245 (0.00109 - 0.00553), b=3.15 (2.96 - 3.34), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .