Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; demersal; depth range 5 - ? m (Ref. 27732). Subtropical; 5°C - 25°C (Ref. 2060); 53°N - 27°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Dorsal view shows the male with larger pectoral fins and the female with fuller abdomen (Ref. 44091). Body is mottled with darker greenish-gray to dark brown markings, against a yellow-brown to brown color; conspicuous adipose crests along the ventral and dorsal mid-lines of the caudal peduncle; 10 barbels; suborbital spine hidden in the skin (Ref. 27732).
Asia: Native to Siberia (Tugur and Amur drainages), Sakhalin, Korea, Japan, China south to northern Vietnam. Europe: Introduced in several localities in Rhine (Germany) and Ticino (Italy, north of Milano) drainages, Aral Sea basin, North America, Australia and Hawaii.
This species proved successful in the aquarium fish trade and has also been introduced to other countries (Ref. 1739). At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Found in rivers, lakes and ponds. Also in swamps and rice fields (Ref. 27732, 44894). Adults prefer still or gently flowing water (Ref. 44894), also the muddy bottoms, where they hide in the muck and leaf litter with only their heads sticking out; also found in muddy bottoms of streams and ponds; in Hawaii, can also be found under mats of honohono (Commelina diffusa and California grass (Brachiara nuatica). Feed on worms, small crustaceans, insects, insect larvae, and other small aquatic organisms (Ref. 44091). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Can tolerate temperatures between 2 and 30°C, and can breathe air to supplement respiratory requirements in oxygen-depleted waters. Commonly used by anglers as live bait, so escapes may also have contributed to their spread (Ref. 44894).
Male wraps his body around the female and stimulates her to release a cloud of eggs, which he simultaneously fertilizes (Ref. 44091).
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. vol 1. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 541 p. (Ref. 4832)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Potential pest (Ref. 8923)
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: commercial; bait: occasionally
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00300 - 0.00918), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for this species & Subfamily-body sh (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=2000 eggs).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .