Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Ptychocheilus: Greek, ptyx, ptychos = fold + Greek, cheilos = lip (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; demersal. Temperate; 39°N - 35°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 140 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 72486)
soft rays: 8. Dorsal fin usually with 8 rays; anal fin with 8 rays; 38-44 scales on back from head to dorsal fin; 65-78, usually 67-75, scales on lateral line; and 12-15 scales above lateral line (Ref. 86798).
North America: Sacramento-San Joaquin, Pajaro-Salinas, Russian, and Clear Lake drainages in California, USA. Introduced elsewhere in California, including Eel River and tributaries to Morro Bay.
Inhabits rocky and sandy pools and runs of small to large rivers. Usually found in clear, warm streams (Ref. 5723). Voracious minnow with pike-like habits. Small pikeminnows (less than or equal to 7 cm SL) are found in shallow water with cover and lower velocities. The microhabitat use of these juveniles is controlled by the presence of large pikeminnows which connotes intraspecific predation. The microhabitat shift is observed to be significantly influenced by the presence rather than the number of large pikeminnows in the area (Ref. 55069).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.2 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (81 of 100) .