Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic; non-migratory. Temperate; 47°N - 45°N, 8°E - 11°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 760.00 g (Ref. 40637)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This species is distinguished from its congeners entering the freshwater of the Mediterranean basin by the following characters: an almost straight dorsal profile; thin gill rakers 38-72 (different populations average between 45 and 64); no teeth on palatine (Ref. 59043).
Europe and Mediterranean. Lakes Como, Garda, Orta, Maggiore, Lugano and Iseo (northern Italy, Switzerland). Introduced in Lakes Bolsena, Bracciano and Vico (central Italy).
A lacustrine, pelagic species. Males reproduce for the first time at 2-3 years, females at 3-4; most reproduce only once or twice. Spawns at temperatures above 15-16°C in June to August, along the shores near the surface at night with bright moonlights. Feeds mainly on cladocerans and copepods, also on small fish (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. Biologia 52, Suppl. 5:1-271. (Ref. 13696)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00581 - 0.01569), b=3.03 (2.89 - 3.17), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .