Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic. Tropical
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 115 - ? cm
Max length : 120.0 cm WD (female); max. published weight: 30.0 kg (Ref. 11228)
Morphology | Morphometrics
A small devilray with a short head bearing short head fins; dorsal fin white-tipped, and pectoral fins with slightly curved tips; upper surface with no denticles and tail shorter than disc, with no spine (Ref. 5578). Dark brown above, white below (Ref. 5578).
Indo-West Pacific: eastern coast of Africa to Indonesia.
Found in coastal and oceanic waters (Ref. 5578). Feeds on plankton (Ref. 30573). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Generally found in schools, leaping out of the water (Ref. 11228). Caught rarely in the tuna gillnet fisheries. Utilized for its gill filter plates (high value), meat, cartilage and skin (Ref.58048).
Randall, J.E., 1995. Coastal fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 439 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (55 of 100) .