Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Osteoglossiformes
(Bony tongues) > Hiodontidae
Etymology: Hiodon: From Greek letter "gamma, "y", due to the shape of the teeth; Greek, odous = teeth; bone forming the base of the tongue (Ref. 45335); alosoides: alosoides --- shadlike, referring to its general shape and similarity to Alosa, Clupeidae (Ref. 1998).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; pelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Temperate; 69°N - 31°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 52.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 31.0 cm OT male/unsexed; (Ref. 3221); max. published weight: 1.7 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 14 years (Ref. 12193)
North America: western Ontario to the Mackenzie River as far down as Aklavik. In the east, it extends southwest below the Great Lakes, through the Ohio and Mississippi River drainages. In the, west it occurs southeast from western Alberta, through eastern Montana and Wyoming, to Oklahoma.
Occurs in deep, open pools and channels of turbid, lowland rivers; small lakes and impoundments (Ref. 5723, 10294). Feeds on surface and aquatic insects, crustaceans, mollusks, small fishes, frogs, shrew, and mice (Ref. 10294). Migrates upstream in the spring to spawn and feed. Moves downstream in the fall. Mainly nocturnal. Preyed upon by birds, some mammals, and other fishes. Marketed smoked.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman, 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 184:1-966. (Ref. 1998)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00450 - 0.01537), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), based on LWR estimates for this species & Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 5,761).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100) .