Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Muraenidae
(Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Gymnothorax: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, thorax, -akos = breast (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 35581). Subtropical, preferred ?; 34°N - 2°S, 121°W - 90°W (Ref. 96339)
Eastern Pacific: Point Conception in California, USA to southern Baja California in Mexico. Also known from the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 35581).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 152 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 56049)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found common among rocks; lives in crevices or holes, usually with only head protruding. Very common in shallow reef areas (Ref. 35581). Feed mostly at night on crustaceans, octopuses and small fishes. Long-lived. Pelagic spawners (Ref. 56049).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous. Pelagic spawner (Ref. 56049).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00095 (0.00047 - 0.00196), b=3.10 (2.93 - 3.27), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=30).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .