Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae
(Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Glyptocephalus: Greek, glyptes = carver + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 18 - 1570 m (Ref. 5951), usually 45 - 366 m (Ref. 6263). Temperate; 2°C - 6°C (Ref. 6263); 74°N - 35°N, 79°W - 26°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 30.4  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4705); max. published weight: 2.5 kg (Ref. 35388); max. reported age: 25 years (Ref. 6263)
soft rays: 85 - 102. Pectoral fin of eyed side shorter than head. Distal part of pectoral fin blackish (Ref. 232). Large mucus pores on the blind side of the head. Uniform coloration, rough scales. Body elongated with complete straight lateral line (Ref. 35388).
Eastern Atlantic: Northern Spain to northern Norway. Western Atlantic: Gulf of St. Lawrence and Grand Banks in Canada to North Carolina in USA (Ref. 7251).
Inhabits soft mud bottoms in fairly deep water (Ref. 9988). Benthic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on crustaceans, polychaetes, brittle stars (Ref. 9988) and fishes (Ref. 58426). Marketed fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Eggs and larvae are pelagic.
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00290 - 0.00755), b=3.08 (2.94 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.15-0.2; tmax=25).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .