Advertisement

You can sponsor this page

Pteroplatytrygon violacea  (Bonaparte, 1832)

Pelagic stingray
Add your observation in Fish Watcher
| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Pteroplatytrygon violacea   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos and videos
Pictures | Google image
Image of Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Pelagic stingray)
Pteroplatytrygon violacea
Picture by Mollet, H.F.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays)
Etymology: Pteroplatytrygon: Greek, pteron = wing, fin + Greek,platys = flat + Greek, trygon = a sting ray (Ref. 45335);  violacea: From the Latin 'viola' meaning violet.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 1 - 381 m (Ref. 58302), usually 1 - 100 m (Ref. 55209).   Subtropical; 52°N - 50°S, 167°W - 180°E (Ref. 55209)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 40 - 50 cm
Max length : 160 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5578); common length : 110 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9254)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

A thick, dark stingray with a broadly rounded snout and an angular pectoral disc; tail less than twice body length with a long lower caudal finfold ending far in front of tail tip, but with no upper finfold; disc without thorns; usually 1 extremely long sting on tail; eyes do not protrude (Ref. 5578). Uniformly violet, purple, or dark blue-green dorsally and ventrally (Ref. 3263). No prominent markings (Ref. 3263).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Probably cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical seas. Eastern Atlantic: southeastern coasts of the Mediterranean and off Sicily. Reported from Cape Verde (Ref. 34514). Eastern Pacific: California (USA), Baja California (Mexico), and the Galapagos Islands Reported off Vancouver (Ref. 11980) and from Chile (Ref. 9068). Western Atlantic (Ref. 7251). There are 4 records from southern Africa (Ref. 11228).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in open, tropical and warm temperate waters usually in the first 100 m. Possibly the only totally pelagic member of the family (Ref. 6871). Feeds on coelenterates (including medusae), squid, decapod crustaceans, and fish. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Venomous spine on tail. Common catch of the pelagic tuna (and shark) longline and gillnet fisheries (drift, Ref. 75025) operating throughout the region (Ref. 58048); also by purse-seine and bottom trawls (Ref. 75025). Utilized for its meat and sometimes cartilage (Ref.58048).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. John Hopkins University Press, Maryland.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 9254)




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Special reports

Download XML

Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.54 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.18 (captivity); Fec=1-9 (could probably have 2 litters per year)).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.