Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic. Tropical; 30°N - 21°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 6871)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Brownish-grey above, whitish below (Ref. 11228). Underside of pectorals with semicircular black blotch along middle of anterior edge (Ref. 11228).
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea, Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf to South Africa and the Philippines, north to Viet Nam, south to northern Australia (Ref. 9911). This species is noted as a possible synonym of the earlier Mobula diabolus (Shaw, 1804) in Compagno's 1999 checklist (Ref. 35766).
Found in coastal and oceanic waters (Ref. 30573); solitary of aggregations, sometimes with 50 or more individuals (Ref. 90102). Not known to penetrate the epipelagic zone (Ref. 9911). Feeds on plankton (Ref. 30573). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. John Hopkins University Press, Maryland.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .