Myxini (hagfishes) > Myxiniformes
(Hagfishes) > Myxinidae
(Hagfishes) > Eptatretinae
Etymology: Eptatretus: Greek, epta = seven + Greek, tretos, -e, -on = with holes (Ref. 45335); stoutii: Named after Dr. Stout, corresponding secretary of the CAS (Ref. 6885).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 16 - 966 m (Ref. 96339). Temperate; 57°N - 20°N, 177°W - 105°W
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 42.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 63.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96339)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 0. No true fins - one dorsal finfold, far back, median, very low, continuous with caudal; caudal broad, rounded; ventral finfold very low, origin somewhat posterior to last gill pore, extending to anus (Ref. 6885). Dark brown, tan, gray, or brownish red, often tinted with blue or purple, never black, lighter ventrally, rarely with large patches of white; preserved specimens light brown (Ref. 6885).
Eastern Pacific: southeastern Alaska to Bahia San Pablo, central Baja California, Mexico.
Inhabits fine silt and clay bottoms (Ref. 6885). Enters large fishes by way of the mouth and anus and feed on its viscera and muscles (Ref. 6885). May greatly diminish catches taken with fixed gears (Ref. 6885). Produces mucilaginous slime when harassed (Ref. 6885). Probably exhibits hermaphroditism (Ref. 56947). Due to its primitive metabolism it is collected for research purposes (Ref. 6885).
Copulatory organ absent (Ref. 51361). Presence of bisexual juvenile gonad, requires further investigation regarding hermaphroditism (Ref. 56947). In one study (Ref. 40710), hermaphroditism is exhibited by only 0.2% of the individuals studied.
Fernholm, B., 1998. Hagfish systematics. p. 33-44. In J.M. Jørgensen, J.P. Lomholt, R.E. Weber and H. Malte (eds.) The biology of hagfishes. Chapman & Hall, London. 578 p. (Ref. 31276)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00275 (0.00162 - 0.00467), b=2.89 (2.73 - 3.05), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.70 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec = 28).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .