Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 35893), usually ? - 1 m (Ref. 35893). Temperate; 5°C - 33°C (Ref. 56353); 41°N - 31°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56353)
Adults are found in the middle reaches of rivers during the summer; migrates downstream in autumn (Ref. 559). River bed consists of cobbles, boulders and gravel in riffles and sand and gravel in pools (Ref. 56353). Feed on fishes (Ref. 559). Juveniles migrate from the spawning ground in the sea to the middle reaches of rivers to grow (Ref. 56353).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
From an aquarium observation, parental care is provided by the male which guarded and cared for the eggs until they hatch (Ref. 56353).
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00246 - 0.01548), b=3.15 (2.93 - 3.37), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.73 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec = 15,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .