Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Pholidae
Etymology: Pholis: Greek, pholis, -idos = scale (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 43239). Temperate
Northwest Pacific: Japan, the Korean Peninsula, and Yellow Sea to the Gulf of Po-Hai (Bo Hai, Chihli), China.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Ranges from the intertidal zone to 5 m depth, on seaweed beds with pebble bottoms (Ref. 46239).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nakabo, T., 2002. Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species, English edition II. Tokai University Press, Japan, pp 867-1749. (Ref. 43239)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.4 - 22.1, mean 18.3 (based on 153 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00182 (0.00097 - 0.00341), b=3.18 (3.01 - 3.35), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .