Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic. Temperate
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 105 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1441); common length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1441); max. published weight: 15.0 kg (Ref. 59043)
soft rays: 5. Diagnosed from other species of Barbus and Luciobarbus in Caspian Se basin by having the following characters: predorsal length longer than postdorsal length; dorsal fin with 8½ branched rays; 12-18 gill rakers; back between head and dorsal origin laterally compressed, forming a keel; lateral line with 52-72 (usually 60-66) scales; and lower lip thin, without median lobe or pad (Ref. 59043).
Europe and Asia: Caspian basin, from Volga southward to Atrek (Iran); Aral basin in Amu Darya, Syr Darya and Chu drainages.
Occur in the sea, mostly close to shores and forages also in estuaries. This species is semi-anadromous and non-anadromous, rarely landlocked in reservoirs. Adults and juveniles feed on invertebrates, algae, detritus, plant material, and small fishes, while larvae prey on zooplankton and small benthic invertebrates. Spawn in lowland streams and rivers on sand-gravel bottom, usually in strong current. Undertake migration to uppermost tributaries of rivers. Non-anadromous populations begin to migrate during late summer-autumn and spawn following spring, but some enter rivers in early spring and spawn same year. Migration by non-anadromous populations takes place just before spawning to upper stretches of tributaries or spawn in lakes and reservoirs on sand to mud bottom (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00225 - 0.00887), b=3.13 (2.95 - 3.31), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=3-7; Fec=15,000-125,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .