Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Hippocampinae
Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 46 m (Ref. 4281), usually 1 - 25 m (Ref. 30915). Temperate; 20°S - 35°S, 145°E - 160°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 8.3, range 8 - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm OT male/unsexed; (Ref. 30915); common length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4281); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 93066)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Southwest Pacific: Solomon Islands and Australia. Records from southern Mozambique and Natal, South Africa are misidentifications of Hippocampus camelopardalis. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies.
In shallow, weedy inshore areas and Zostera seagrass beds; also on sponges. Also under jetties on holdfasts of kelp, and on other man-made structures such as shark nets. Diurnal and site faithful (Ref. 30915). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205).
Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall, 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming annual Fec<1000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .