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Albula vulpes  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Bonefish
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Albula vulpes   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Albula vulpes (Bonefish)
Albula vulpes
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Albuliformes (Bonefishes) > Albulidae (Bonefishes) > Albulinae
Etymology: Albula: Latin, albus = white (Ref. 45335).

Issue
Albula esuncula (Garman, 1899) and Albula goreensis Valenciennes, 1847 are two valid species resurected by Pfeiler in 2008 (two different papers) that were previously synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758). The two species pages will be created.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 84 m (Ref. 13608), usually 1 - 15 m (Ref. 9268).   Subtropical; 45°N - 31°S, 159°W - 35°W (Ref. 55166)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 48.8, range 21 - 36 cm
Max length : 104 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4447); max. published weight: 10.0 kg (Ref. 37955)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-19; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 7 - 9; Vertebrae: 69 - 74. Branchiostegal rays 12-14 (Ref. 4639). Silvery with dusky fins; base of pectorals yellow (Ref. 3970). Body elongate and fusiform (Ref. 4832). Last ray of dorsal and anal fins not prolonged; head region naked; spot and band absent on head; margin of nasal pore not black (Ref. 13608). Bluntly conical snout extends beyond inferior mouth (Ref. 26938). Pectoral and pelvic axillary scales present; a single long scale on each side of membrane between each ray of dorsal and anal fins (Ref. 4832).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

Worldwide in warm seas. Hawaiian species have been verified by electrophoretic analysis (Ref. 5577), hence, Albula vulpes might be further split. The next available name for the West African form is Albula goreensis, Valenciennes, 1846. Eastern Pacific: California, USA to Peru (Ref. 2850). Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Florida, Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico, Antilles and Caribbean to Brazil (Ref. 26938). Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits shallow coastal waters, estuaries and bays, over sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 3237). Often in schools, except large individuals which are solitary (Ref. 7251). Dorsal fin may show above surface (Ref. 42064). More or less pelagic but feeds on benthic worms, crustaceans, and mollusks (Ref. 2850). Tolerates oxygen poor water by inhaling air into a lung-like airbladder (Ref. 9710). Flesh is bony and not esteemed (Ref. 9268). One of the most important game fishes worldwide (Ref. 26938).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1990. Albulidae. p. 122-124. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris, Vol. 1.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: usually
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01480 (0.01049 - 0.02087), b=3.01 (2.91 - 3.11), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3; tm=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.