Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Dasyatidae
Etymology: Dasyatis: Greek, dasys = rough, dense (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 5 - 200 m (Ref. 6808), usually 20 - 35 m (Ref. 27000). Subtropical; 61°N - 35°S, 19°W - 42°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 57.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 4438); 60.0 cm WD (female)
North-eastern Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and the African coast southwards to Senegal (Ref. 81259).
A coastal species, which enters coastal lagoons, shallow bays and estuaries (Ref. 81259). Found over sandy and muddy bottoms, sometimes near rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Feeds on bottom fishes, crustaceans and mollusks. Ovoviviparous, gestation period about 4 months and 4-7 young are produced. Wings marketed smoked, dried-salted, and also used for fishmeal and oil. Harmful to shellfish banks; dangerous to bathers and fishers due to its poisonous spine. Barbed poison spine is a modified denticle that can be 35cm long, shed occasionally and replaced (Ref. 35388). Maximum reported width about 150 cm (Ref. 81259).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Raies et autres batoides. p. 845-886. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identificationpour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Mèditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3261)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00511 - 0.01483), b=2.94 (2.79 - 3.09), based on LWR estimates for this species & Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.63 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=4-7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (82 of 100) .