Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 250 m (Ref. 2683). Subtropical; 44°N - 4°N, 19°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal and the Mediterranean to Ghana.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 8.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4710); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
(total): 0. Upper eye less than its own diameter from dorsal profile of head. Anterior nostril on blind side not enlarged. Dorsal fin beginning before eyes, with 50-58 fin rays. Pectoral fin on eyed side with 5-6 unbranched fin rays., absent on blind side. Anal fin rays 40-45. Caudal fin separate from last dorsal and anal fin rays. Eyed side greyish or reddish brown.
Found on sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 2683), frequently near plant growth (Ref. 12382).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Desoutter, M., 1990. Soleidae. p. 1037-1049. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 5304)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.3 - 19.4, mean 15.7 (based on 184 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00659 - 0.02000), b=3.09 (2.93 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.38).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .