Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Caranx: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 350 m (Ref. 9283). Subtropical, preferred ?; 33°N -
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 101 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9283); max. published weight: 17.7 kg (Ref. 40637)
Body deep, elongated and slightly compressed; eye with an adipose eyelid; posterior edge of lower jaw behind posterior edge of eye; chest mostly scaleless, just a small patch in front of pectoral fins; 35 to 42 strong scutes; back of body blue to blue black; belly white, silvery, or yellow; pectoral fins and operculum each with a black spot (Ref. 55763).
Eastern Pacific: San Diego, California, USA to Peru, including the Gulf of California and the Galapagos Islands. Probably the same species as Caranx hippos in the Atlantic.
Adults occur in oceanic and coastal waters, commonly found in shallow water, with larger individuals up to 350 m depth (Ref. 9283). Also found in brackish water and occasionally ascend rivers (Ref. 9283). They form medium-sized to big schools, but large adults may be solitary (Ref. 9283). They feed mainly on fishes, but also takes shrimps and other invertebrates (Ref. 9283). Often makes a grunting sound when captured (Ref. 9283). Juveniles are often found in river estuaries (Ref. 9283). Marketed fresh, frozen, smoked and salted or dried; also utilized as fishmeal and a source of oil (Ref. 9283).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.01338 - 0.03745), b=3.00 (2.86 - 3.14), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.61 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .