Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus. More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range ? - 50 m (Ref. 2683). Tropical; 20°N - 5°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 22.8, range 21 - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295)
soft rays: 8. The outer surface of the maxilla is smooth, without a knob or pronounced longitudinal ridge. Inner surface of the pectoral fin axil without scales. Overall color is olive green or brown and pinkish. The cheeks have a network of fine reticulations below the eye.
Eastern Central Atlantic: Senegal to Gabon; also Cape Verde, São Tome-Principe Islands, and Rolas Islands. There is little doubt that only a single species of Lethrinus exists in the tropical western Atlantic.
Found in shallow coastal waters (Ref. 2263). Feeds mainly on bottom-dwelling invertebrates. Marketed fresh (Ref. 171), smoked and dried salted (Ref. 2295). Abundant during the winter months (Ref. 2683).
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01849 (-0.09671 - 0.13369), b=2.96 (2.89 - 3.03), based on LWR estimates for species & genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.46 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .