Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus. More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 185 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 33°N - 35°S, 33°E - 135°W
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa and Polynesia, north to the Ryukyu Islands.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 34 - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); max. published weight: 14.0 kg (Ref. 9710)
soft rays: 8. Probably the largest, longest-snouted lethrinid. Crimson cast on face and fins may develop in large courting males (Ref. 1602). Body color is gray, becoming lighter ventrally, often with scattered irregular dark blotches. The snout has wavy dark streaks. The upper jaw, especially near the corner of the mouth, is sometimes edged with red. Very similar to L. microdon, but more scales above lateral line and caudal fin more forked when young (Ref. 48635).
Largest and the longest-snouted lethrinid (Ref. 37816). Found in sandy coastal areas, lagoons, and reef slopes (Ref. 30573). Juveniles are found in shallow sandy areas. Often occurs in large schools. Adults deep along coastal slopes and drop-offs, usually solitary (Ref. 48635). Very active and swims fast (Ref. 90102). Feeds mainly on fish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. In Palau, it spawns throughout the year on the first few days of the lunar month along the edges of reefs. Large individuals often ciguatoxic in New Caledonia and possibly elsewhere in Oceania (Ref. 9775). Ref. 48635 reports maximum depth of occurrence.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 2295)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.3 - 28.4, mean 27.1 (based on 1006 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.01274 - 0.01798), b=2.99 (2.95 - 3.03), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.06-0.25; tm=4.1-6; tmax=15).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .