Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus. More on author: Klunzinger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 5 - 150 m (Ref. 2295). Tropical; 31°N - 28°S, 30°E - 134°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea, East Africa and the central Indian Ocean to the Marquesas Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 59.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816); max. published weight: 5.4 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 8. Body is yellowish gray with scattered irregular dark spots; lips yellowish, the upper lip more intense; a red spot at upper base of the pectoral fin. The fins are bluish grey and mottled, the bases of the fins are lighter and the edges of the dorsal and caudal fins are reddish.
Occurs in small groups over seagrass beds, sand and rubble areas of coral reefs, deep channels, and lagoons. Usually found in shallow water. Usually seen solitary but sometimes swims in small groups. Juveniles in seagrass beds (Ref. 48635). Feeds mainly on crustaceans, fishes, and echinoderms.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 29, mean 27.9 (based on 1520 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00957 - 0.02285), b=2.98 (2.86 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.14-0.30).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (57 of 100) .