Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus. More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 10 - 80 m (Ref. 2295). Tropical, preferred 28°C (Ref. 107945); 32°N - 23°S, 32°E - 160°E
Indo-West Pacific: widespread, including the Red Sea, Arabian (Persian) Gulf, East Africa to Sri Lanka, to the Ryukyu Islands and Papua New Guinea. Also recorded from Micronesia (Ref. 3807) and French Polynesia (Ref. 4517) but these are probably misidentifications of Lethrinus olivaceus.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 29.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); max. published weight: 4.9 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 8. The snout is moderately long, its dorsal profile slightly concave. Body color is bluish gray or brown often with scattered irregular dark blotches on sides; sometimes three dark streaks radiate forward from the eye. The fins are pale or orangish.
Found over sandy areas near coral reefs (Ref. 30573). Feeds on fish, crustaceans, cephalopods, and polychaetes. Swims in small schools sometimes together with L. olivaceous. Utilized as a food fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31637)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00864 - 0.02531), b=2.98 (2.84 - 3.12), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.53 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.20).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .