Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Monotaxinae
Etymology: Gymnocranius: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kranion = skull (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 20 - 50 m (Ref. 2295). Tropical; 37°N - 10°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295)
soft rays: 9 - 10. Eye is large, its diameter about equal to the width of preorbital and interorbital spaces. The mouth is relatively small. The posterior part of the jaws reaches to about the level of the nostril openings. Overall color is silvery to brownish. Scale borders have a narrow brown border. Numerous vertically elongate blue spots are on the snout and cheek and sometimes on the operculum. Fins are clear to yellow or reddish, caudal fin sometimes dusky brown. Juveniles with a mostly vertical banded pattern (Ref. 48635).
Indo-West Pacific: known only from southern Japan, the South China Sea, the Marshall Islands, and off Phuket, Thailand in the Andaman Sea.
Found over sandy and rubble bottoms near rock and coral reefs. Solitary on sand slopes in clear coastal lagoon habitats (Ref. 48635). Feeds on small bottom-living invertebrates. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9775).
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01532 (-0.15395 - 0.18459), b=2.98 (2.89 - 3.07), based on LWR estimates for this family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .