Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Monotaxinae
Etymology: Gymnocranius: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kranion = skull (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 20 - 170 m (Ref. 12260). Tropical; 35°N - 30°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 64.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816); max. published weight: 5.5 kg (Ref. 40637)
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to southeastern Oceania and from Australia northward to Japan. This species has been referred to as Gymnocranius robinsoni in recent literature.
Inhabits offshore reefs (Ref. 9710), trawling grounds of the continental shelves and offshore rocky bottoms (Ref. 30573). Juveniles inshore on muddy substrates (Ref. 48635). Solitary or in small groups (Ref. 90102). Feeds mostly on bottom invertebrates and small fishes (Ref. 30573). Potential commercial fish if sufficient stocks can be located (Ref. 9775). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9775); sometimes with a strong and unpleasant flavor (Ref. 11888).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.01124 - 0.03382), b=2.89 (2.74 - 3.04), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.23).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .