Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Monotaxinae
Etymology: Gnathodentex: Greek, gnathos = jaw + latin, dens, dentis = teeth (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 3 - 30 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 35°N - 30°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295)
soft rays: 8 - 10. Dorsal head profile moderately sloped; eye relatively large, its diameter about equal to length of snout. The cheeks are scaled; maxilla with a longitudinal reticulated ridge. The inner pectoral fin base are without scales. Back region is brown with narrow silvery stripes. The rest of the head and body mainly silver to gray except for 4 or 5 brownish-orange on lower 2/3 of side. There is a prominent golden yellow blotch directly below the posterior part of the dorsal fin just in front of the caudal peduncle.
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Tuamoto Islands (excluding the Hawaiian Islands), north to Japan, south to Australia. Recently reported from Norfolk Island (Ref. 8880).
Inhabits subtidal reef flats, lagoons, and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Sometimes forms aggregations of about a hundred or more individuals. Feeds at night on benthic invertebrates like crabs and gastropods, occasionally on small fish. Usually marketed fresh.
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01523 (-0.08648 - 0.11695), b=3.02 (2.96 - 3.09), based on LWR estimates for species & family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .