Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 150 m (Ref. 34024). Subtropical; 42°N - 15°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6347)
(total): 37-39. Eel-like, moderate to shallow body depth; cardiform teeth present but restricted to upper jaw symphysis; swim bladder constricted forming two chambers; lacking enlarged dentary or premaxillary fangs, dentary diastema, pelvic fins and swim bladder rockerbone (Ref. 34024). Possesses a free, movable maxilla (Ref. 6347).
Eastern Atlantic: including the Mediterranean. Probably south to Ascension Island.
Common species (Ref. 34024). Adults typically live as commensals in the gut of shallow-water holothurians, Holothuria tubulosa and Stichopus regalis (although some deep-water records exist, see Ref. 6347). Prejuveniles (tenuis larvae) probably inhabit the same host species while the vexillifer and egg-rafts are planktonic. The fish may partly protrude or entirely leave its host at night to feed on small fish and benthic invertebrates. Reproduction noted in July-September. (Ref. 4741).
Nielsen, J.G., D.M. Cohen, D.F. Markle and C.R. Robins, 1999. Ophidiiform fishes of the world (Order Ophidiiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearlfishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(18):178p. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00102 (-0.17398 - 0.17602), b=3.06 (2.97 - 3.15), based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.63 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .