Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sphyraenidae
Etymology: Sphyraena: Greek, sphyraina, -es = the name of a fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 27000), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 6949). Subtropical; 48°N - 24°S, 14°E - 65°W
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 165 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11101); max. published weight: 3.6 kg (Ref. 40637)
Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to Mossamedes, Angola, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, Canary Islands, and Azores. Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Brazil.
Found in coastal and offshore waters (Ref. 2683). Feeds mostly on fish, less often on cephalopods and crustaceans (Ref. 11101).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
De Sylva, D.P., 1990. Sphyraenidae. p. 860-864. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6949)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00692 - 0.01659), b=2.91 (2.78 - 3.04), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.51 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K= 0.123; Tmax >8 yrs).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .