Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Mugiliformes
(Mullets) > Mugilidae
Etymology: Liza: Spanish, liza = grey mullet.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 7399). Temperate; 64°N - 20°N, 26°W - 42°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 34.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 59.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2058); common length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7399)
Eastern Atlantic: Scotland to Cape Verde; in the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Also in coastal waters from southern Norway to Morocco, rare off Mauritania (Ref. 3573). Records from the lagoon of Accra are probably misidentifications.
Adults are neritic usually in schools, entering lagoons and lower estuaries (Ref. 7399); rarely entering freshwater (Ref. 3573, 59043). Juveniles move to coastal lagoons and estuaries in winter and especially in spring (Ref. 59043). They feed on small benthic organisms, detritus, and occasionally on insects and plankton (Ref. 2804). Juveniles feed only on zooplankton (Ref. 59043). Reproduction takes place in the sea, from July to November. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Minimum size allowed for fishing is 20 cm. The quality of the flesh is variable (Ref. 30578).
Juveniles move to coastal lagoons and estuaries in winter and especially in spring (Ref. 59043).
Thomson, J.M., 1986. Mugilidae. p. 344-349. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels, MRAC; Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3573)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00778 - 0.01227), b=2.96 (2.92 - 3.00), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.33 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.14-0.34; tm=3-4; Fec>10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (57 of 100) .