Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 50 - 100 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 35°N - 31°S, 31°E - 145°W (Ref. 55)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 37 - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 11.0 kg (Ref. 9710)
soft rays: 8. Dorsal profile of head steeply sloped, preorbital bone broad, about twice the eye diameter. Preopercular notch and knob moderately developed. Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line. Head with numerous undulating blue lines. Juveniles with a series of 3 to 8 brown bars on sides and a chalky-white spot, with a broad blackish margin, present below anterior soft dorsal ray. Large adults brownish to grey with small white spots and fine striations on the head (Ref. 48635).
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to Tahiti, north to southern Japan, south to Australia.
Occasionally encountered in coral reefs or shallow inshore flats (Ref. 30573). Found singly or in small groups (up to 15 to 20 individuals). Adults on deep coastal slopes; juveniles on shallow algae-reef flats, often near freshwater run-offs (Ref. 48635). Feed on fishes, cephalopods and benthic crustaceans (Ref. 30573). An excellent food fish. In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 57178.
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30298)
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01631 (-0.09825 - 0.13087), b=3.03 (2.96 - 3.10), based on LWR estimates for species & genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.63 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.22).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .