Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Hyporhamphus: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, rhamphos = beak, bill (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic. Subtropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm SL (female); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 59112)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Western Pacific: endemic to eastern Australia, from Gladstone, Queensland south to coastal rivers and estuaries to Lakes Entrance, Victoria.
Collette, B.B., 1974. The garfishes (Hemiramphidae) of Australia and New Zealand. Records of the Australian Museum 29(2):11-105.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= No PD50 data [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00337 (-0.21103 - 0.21776), b=3.14 (3.02 - 3.25), based on LWR estimates for this family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.40 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .