Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Labridae
Etymology: Symphodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 50 m. Subtropical; 44°N - 21°N, 18°W - 42°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.0, range 12 - 15.2 cm
Max length : 44.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 4742)
Eastern Atlantic: Spain to Morocco including the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Adults are found near rocks mainly in eel-grass beds, sometimes in salty lagoons. Often gregarious. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Nest of seaweed built and kept by male with one or more females spawning. Feed on sea urchins, ophiuroids, bivalves, shrimps and crabs (Ref. 4742). Rate of growth is slow (Ref. 4742). Undergoes sex reversal (Ref. 4742).
Quignard, J.-P. and A. Pras, 1986. Labridae. p. 919-942. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00992 (-0.03207 - 0.05190), b=3.02 (3.00 - 3.04), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.25-0.89(?); tm=2-3; tmax=15).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .