Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens)
Etymology: Konosirus: Japanese, konoshiro, a fish eaten in Kumihama City, in the Sea of Japan.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243). Subtropical; 42°N - 23°N, 117°E - 138°E (Ref. 54453)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 15 - ? cm
Max length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 593)
soft rays: 192 - 27. Body moderately slender, moderately compressed, belly with 17 to 21 (usually 19 or 20) + 12 to 16 (usually 14 or 15), total 32 to 37 (usually 34 or 35) scutes; no pre-dorsal scutes. Snout projecting slightly; gill rakers of first arch at least 3/4 length of gill filaments. Vertebrae 46 to 51 (usually 49, also 48 or 51). A dark spot behind gill opening, followed by several lines of dark dots.
Indo-West Pacific: coasts of Japan from about 38°N southward; Sea of Japan north to Vladivostok on mainland; also Yellow Sea, including Gulf of Pohai and East China Sea south to Taiwan Island and Hong Kong).
Found off coasts and in bays, but migrating into shallower brackish water for breeding, at least in Ariake Sound (south Kyushu), where spawning takes place far up the Sound in April and May. Individuals apparently spawn twice or more during the season.
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01123 (-0.09185 - 0.11430), b=3.04 (2.98 - 3.11), based on LWR estimates for species & family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.22 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Assuming tm=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .