Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 253 - 580 m (Ref. 28982). Deep-water
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9824)
soft rays: 87 - 95;
Vertebrae: 32 - 33. Body elliptical, its depth contained more than 2.4 times in SL. Tip of isthmus below posterior margin of lower eye. Eyes separated by a broad and concave space. Interorbital in male broader than that in female. Ctenoid scales on ocular side armed with a row of hairlike spines. Small dark blotches on origin of straight part of lateral line. Small dark dots along upper margin of upper eye.
Pacific Ocean: New Caledonia, southern Japan, and the Hawaiian Islands (Ref. 9824); including the Norfolk Ridge and Isle of Matthew (Ref. 28982).
Inhabits mud and sand bottoms (Ref. 9824). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Feeds on small benthic animals. Marketed fresh, sometimes dried-salted (Ref. 9824).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hensley, D.A. and K. Amaoka, 2001. Bothidae. Lefteye flounders. p. 3799-3841. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9824)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00432 - 0.02315), b=3.02 (2.82 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for this Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .