Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens)
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188). Tropical; 33°N - 5°S, 116°W - 77°W (Ref. 188)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); common length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 12 - 23. Body moderately slender, quite strongly compressed, belly sharply keeled. The bright silver stripe along the flank distinguishes it from all similar clupeids in the area. Hind border of gill opening evenly rounded (with two fleshy outgrowths in Harengula and Opisthonema, the latter with a filamentous last dorsal fin ray).
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to the Gulf of Guayaquil.
A coastal-pelagic species that forms dense schools in beaches, lagoons and estuaries (Ref. 9291). Tolerates brackish and fresh waters (Ref. 9291). Feeds on plankton, especially on small crustaceans and fish larvae (Ref. 9291). Processed into oil and fishmeal (Ref. 37955).
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00815 (-0.10815 - 0.12446), b=3.06 (2.99 - 3.13), based on LWR estimates for species & family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.43 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.36).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .