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Escualosa thoracata  (Valenciennes, 1847)

White sardine
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Escualosa thoracata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Escualosa thoracata (White sardine)
Escualosa thoracata
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Escualosa: Latin, squaleus, squalidus = with rough skin + Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188).   Tropical; 27°N - 22°S, 64°E - 151°E (Ref. 188)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: northern Indian Ocean (Karachi eastward to Rangoon) to Thailand, Indonesia (Java Sea), the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, and Australia.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); common length : 8.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); max. reported age: 1 years (Ref. 43081)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-21; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 14 - 19. Belly strongly keeled. The almost rectangular second supra-maxilla and the bright silver stripe along the flank distinguish it from juveniles of Sardinella, Amblygaster and Herklotsichthys. Resembles some pellonulines with a silver stripe, but they lack a first supra-maxilla. Distinguished from E. elongata of the Gulf of Thailand but its deeper body and broader silver stripe.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Forms schools in shallow waters, the juveniles apparently entering the lower parts of rivers, but returning later to the sea. Feeds on both zooplankton (copepods, crab zoea, larvae of bivalves and fish eggs) and phytoplankton. Breeds from October to February (mainly November to January) off western coast of India, usually in relatively shallow inshore waters. Marketed fresh and dried-salted.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00456 - 0.02002), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tmax=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.