Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens)
Etymology: Opisthonema: Greek, opisthe = behind + Greek,nema = filament (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-neritic, usually 50 - ? m (Ref. 11035). Tropical; 28°N - 3°S, 112°W - 78°W (Ref. 54686)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 22.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9291)
soft rays: 12 - 23. The filamentous last dorsal fin ray distinguishes it from members of any other eastern Pacific clupeoid genus. Separated from eastern Pacific Opisthonema species by having 63 to 110 lower gill rakers in fishes over 14 cm standard length.
Eastern Pacific: Santa Rosalita, Pacific coast of Baja, California, Mexico southward to Punta Sal and Punta Picos, Peru. (Earlier works probably combined data for Opisthonema bulleri and Opisthonema medirastre). Range is extended northwards to San Pedro, California (Ref. 35601). Rare on outer coast of Baja California Sur (Ref. 35601).
Usually occur near the surface of coastal and offshore waters, down to over bottom of continental shelf (Ref. 11035). Form dense schools. Apparently the most abundant of the eastern Pacific species of Opisthonema. Feed on phytoplankton (dinoflagellates and diatoms). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 35601). It is reduced to fish meal (Ref. 9291). Oil may be extracted (Ref. 9291). May be canned (Ref. 9291).
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; bait: occasionally
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00817 (-0.11375 - 0.13010), b=3.06 (2.98 - 3.13), based on LWR estimates for species & family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.28 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.22-0.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .