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Arothron firmamentum  (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850)

Starry toado
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Arothron firmamentum   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Arothron firmamentum (Starry toado)
Arothron firmamentum
Picture by CSIRO

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes (Puffers and filefishes) > Tetraodontidae (Puffers) > Tetraodontinae

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 360 m (Ref. 33352).   Subtropical

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 13 - 14. Body covered with prickles (Ref. 559).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Pacific: southern Japan (Ref. 559) to Australia (New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasmania) and New Zealand (Ref. 5755). Southeast Atlantic: south coast of South Africa (Ref. 11228). Also found in Southwestern Atlantic: Argentine (Ref. 49964).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found over the continental shelf and slope (Ref. 9563).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Matsuura, Keiichi | Collaborators

May, J.L. and J.G.H. Maxwell, 1986. Trawl fish from temperate waters of Australia. CSIRO Division of Fisheries Research, Tasmania. 492 p. (Ref. 9563)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Poisonous to eat




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02630 (0.01189 - 0.05820), b=2.89 (2.71 - 3.07), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.