Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Some information are attached to E. jacksoniensis Macleay, 1878, a synonym of Etrumeus (Ref. 93002).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 125 m (Ref. 96339). Subtropical
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 16.4  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56557); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56557)
soft rays: 10 - 13. Some variation in body depth and certain meristic characters; without pre- and post-pelvic scutes; W-shaped pelvic scute; pelvic fins less advanced. Distinguished from E. whiteheadi of southern African waters by having fewer anal fin rays and the pelvic fin base about 1/3 eye diameter. Isthmus with lateral flanges or shoulders (Ref. 188). Silvery with an olive green back. Scales deciduous (Ref. 7251). Also Ref. 3259.
Restricted to the northwestern Atlantic: from the Bay of Fundy to the Gulf of Mexico.
Mainly inshore but has been occasionally taken 120 km from the Ecuador coast (Ref. 9291); also occur on shelf edge or surface (Ref. 11230), and between 50-150m (Ref. 028016). Usually occur in large schools (Ref. 2850). Epipelagic (Ref. 58302). Feed mainly on euphausiids and copepods (Ref. 9291). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 35601). Marketed fresh, salted and canned. Also processed into fishmeal (Ref. 9291).
DiBattista, J.D., J.E. Randall and B.W. Bowen, 2012. Review of the round herrings of the genus Etrumes (Clupeidae: Dussumieriinae) of Africa, with descriptions of two new species / Revue des shadines rondes africaines du genre Etrumeus (Clupeidae: Dussumieriinae) et description de deux nouvelles espèces. Cybium 36(3):447-460. (Ref. 91762)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5098 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00279 - 0.01081), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.13-0.8; tm=1.7; tmax=5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .