Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 60 m (Ref. 9313). Subtropical, preferred 27°C (Ref. 107945); 36°N - 13°S, 120°W - 77°W (Ref. 55)
Eastern Pacific: southern California to Peru, rare north of Baja California, Mexico; also at the Cocos and Galapagos islands.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 19 - 20 cm
Max length : 71.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 13.0 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 8. Forehead slopes steeply; snout somewhat pointed. Preopercular notch and knob weak. Scale rows on back parallel with lateral line. Rosy red anteriorly, becoming bright orange to yellow over most of the body; the fins are mainly yellow or orange; the inside of the mouth is white; a bluish horizontal streak runs below the eye.
Found in inshore reef areas over hard bottoms until at least 60 m depth (Ref. 9313). Tolerant to freshwaters (Ref. 36880). Form aggregations during daylight and shelter as solitary fish in caverns. Feed on fishes, shrimps, crabs and mollusks. Marketed fresh or frozen (Ref. 9313).
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.00918 - 0.02736), b=2.97 (2.83 - 3.11), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.63 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.15;).
Prior r = 0.47, 2 SD range = 0.27 - 0.80, log(r) = -0.76, SD log(r) = 0.27, Based on: 1 M, 1 K, 3 tgen, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .